Micro Hydropower Systems!
What is What Is Micro-Hydropower?
Flowing and falling water have potential energy. Hydropower comes from converting energy in flowing water by means of a water wheel or through a turbine into useful mechanical power. This power is converted into electricity using an electric generator or is used directly to run milling machines.
Hydropower technology has been with us for more than a century. Many early mills, mines and towns built some form of power generation from small hydropower systems in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Micro-hydropower systems are relatively small power sources that are appropriate in most cases for individual users or groups of users who are independent of the electricity supply grid. Hydropower systems are classified as large, medium, small, mini and micro according to their installed power generation capacity.
Electrical power is measured in watts (W), kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW). A micro-hydropower system is generally classified as having a generating capacity of less than 100 kW. Systems that have an installation capacity of between 100 kW and 1000 kW (1.0 MW) are referred to as mini-hydro. Small hydro is defined as having a capacity of more than 1.0 MW and up to 10 MW, although in Canada small-hydro can be defined by provincial and territorial utilities as having a capacity of less than 30 MW or 50 MW.
As we aware Micro Hydropower Systems rapidly grow in KPK region, where presence of extensive knowledge engineers who build micro hydropower system successfully and providing electricity to several villages with their own expense and system design, which is now over 20KW system.
This is a very huge example for our Government who need to be work on Hydal Power as previously we are a Hydal Power country.
Micro-hydro systems have the following components
- - a water turbine that converts the energy of flowing or falling water into mechanical energy that drives a generator, which generates electrical power – this is the heart of a micro-hydropower system
- - a control mechanism to provide stable electrical power
- - electrical transmission lines to deliver the power to its destination
Depending on the site, the following may be needed to develop a micro-hydropower system (see Figure 2):
- - an intake or weir to divert stream flow from the water course
- - a canal/pipeline to carry the water flow to the forebay from the intake
- - a forebay tank and trash rack to filter debris and prevent it from being drawn into the turbine at the penstock pipe intake
- - a penstock pipe to convey the water to the powerhouse
- - a powerhouse, in which the turbine and generator convert the power of the water into electricity
- - a tailrace through which the water is released back to the river or stream
Many micro-hydropower systems operate “run of river,” which means that neither a large dam or water storage reservoir is built nor is land flooded. Only a fraction of the available stream flow at a given time is used to generate power, and this has little environmental impact. The amount of energy that can be captured depends on the amount of water flowing per second (the flow rate) and the height from which the water falls (the head).